Future of Public Broadcasting in
There is a
world-wide debate today to reclaim the cultural space usurped by commercial
interests much to the degradation of social life. While there are some
reservations on how effective state-run broadcasting can be in doing this,
it is an opportune time to ride the public sentiment and regain the lost
ground writes Padmaja Shaw.
Unless one is Rupert
Murdoch, very few people have serious objections to the idea of public
broadcasting. It’s almost like motherhood and apple pie. But both the high
priest of commercial broadcasting, Rupert Murdoch, and the disappointed
votaries of public broadcasting have some serious bone to pick with the
shape public broadcasting takes in various socio-political contexts.
Even as it was struggling with colonialism and its brutal impact on its
society, India got an early entry into the annals of broadcast history. The
early influence of BBC gave it a head start both by way of technology and
understanding about what social purpose broadcasting could serve. All India
Radio evolved as a self-confident medium uninterrupted for about thirty
years after Independence up until 1977. All major cultural talent in India
passed through its portals and found its initial moorings there.
Partly from the time television arrived on the scene in a big way in the
mid-seventies and much more so with the expansion of electronic media in the
commercial sector, the public broadcasters in India feel more and more
compelled to be defensive about what they stand for, to be apologetic. The
commercialization of the media market was accompanied by strident attacks on
the state-run broadcaster. Some popular arguments for attack being, ‘it is
not the job of the government to run electronic media’, or ‘Why should
public pay for programming that they don’t watch’. While some of the
arguments may sound true, it is important to examine what lead to this
In this paper, I would like to
address these perceptions and the need for clarity on these issues:
a. Not the job of the government to run
This wisdom dawned
on the third world intellectuals after President Reagan popularised
deregulation in the overall economy and more specifically in the media
industries in United States of America. The mid-80s and 90s saw a spate of
regulatory fiats which opened up the markets for private sector media
players all over the world. The argument was that the private sector is more
responsive and will cater to the needs of the market with greater
efficiency, while ensuring diversity.
The advent of private broadcasters was greeted with great excitement and
anticipation. But soon, the private enterprises’ business priorities made it
clear to the consumer/audience that diversity and innovation are not a
priority to the private operators. Unlike the state-run broadcasting,
neither did private enterprise privilege the cultural and national goals.
The reality of private sector’s actual performance in the marketplace is
unfolding before us every day much to the chagrin of parents, teachers and
civil society in general. The private sector not only failed to cater to the
needs of the people, it chases success formulas, without diversity and
without much creativity. It is frenetic, market driven and is changing the
cultural landscape of the country into a quagmire of immorality, corruption
With this experience of what the private sector broadcasting is capable of,
there is little doubt that a large section of the population is looking for
an alternative. Broadcasting being technology intensive and capital
intensive, it is well understood that it is either the deep pockets of big
business or the state that can set up broadcasting enterprises.
The Indian state built up a formidable terrestrial broadcasting network over
the last 62 years after Independence. The network continues to be the most
watched in term of sheer reach to all nooks and corners of the country and
cutting across all classes of audience. The miniscule ratings that the
satellite channels boast of are no competition to the extraordinary access
Prasar Bharati has to its audience. It also serves the interests of a vast
rural, poor audience who do not have disposable income and who are not
valued as consumers by the commercial media. This in itself is an important
But the impact of rapid and successful expansion of commercial media
industry on Prasar Bharati has been adverse over the years, not so much in
loss of commercial revenue but in loss of policy direction. The public
broadcaster began to convince itself that to fight this market, it is
necessary to lose its essence and to mimic the competition. The successful
public broadcasters across the globe have cautiously avoided this and
strengthened their programming strategies instead to provide a high quality
alternative to the commercial product. It is for Prasar Bharati to
rediscover its former clarity of vision and provide healthy entertainment
and information to the audience. More than ever, it is necessary for the
state to strengthen its broadcast set up to provide a credible alternative
to the commercial broadcasting.
The answer to the statement, ‘it is not the job of the government to run
electronic media’ is, it is the job of the government to protect the public
from the onslaught of commercial media by providing alternate cultural
products. India is known to be a very different kind of market. It is well
known that subscription channels like the BBC and Discovery are doing well
in India. There is a fairly good chunk of audience that is willing to
support good programming. Only the larger publicly funded systems (BBC of UK
and PBS/NPR of USA) will have the wherewithal to take on the commercial
channels. The public broadcaster must revive its faith in its audience and
address their cultural needs.
b. ‘Why should public pay for programming
that they don’t watch?’
implication of such a statement is: Commercial broadcasting is providing
what the public wants and therefore gets ratings and advertisements.
Advertising supported media is free. Expensive media products are generated
and delivered to the audience free of cost. This is a myth that has been
actively promoted by the media industry and the advertisers. The issue
really is what is being watched and in which context and who is paying for
Advertising-driven content has many peculiarities to it. Firstly, it assumes
much about what the viewer/listener wants and by repeatedly promoting some
products and ideas, normalises them. For instance, the newly launched FM
stations do not have access to much of high quality music that AIR has.
However, by repeatedly playing what is available and presentation couched in
bantering conversation with the listener is insidiously making the listening
experience ‘interesting’. It is this poor quality product attractively
packaged that makes money quickly and moves on to something new, which is
the primary characteristic of commercial media business. Some kind of hit
and run strategy.
The other is, if any charge is associated with the experience of media
products, the scenario will be different, as is evident from Rupert
Murdoch’s media empire grappling with the idea of charging for its products.
Respected establishments like the BBC (domestic and online, not the world
service) are providing very high quality product free AND without the
support of advertising, News Corporation is hesitating to charge as it may
lose a large segment of its current ‘patrons’. This more or less leads us to
the point that the news and entertainment consumer will not pay for what he
is supposed to be wanting from his media house if it is to be paid for.
Crime, sensationalism and disaster news and mindless entertainment that is
advertiser-supported and free to the consumer, will have far lesser chance
when the consumer begins to play the role of a ‘rational being’ in the
economy and spends only on products he perceives as Value-for-Money. This
already operates in the film industry. Films that don’t make the cut fail at
the box office. The film-goer will not spend his hard-earned money on a
poorly made film. However, he may well see it when it is shown on television
‘free’. This does not give us the liberty to claim that that’s what the
audience really wants. Much poor quality programming gets by because it’s
there, and it’s free.
There is a need to make the audience aware of the enormous material and
cultural cost of advertising to the consumer. By perpetuating the myth that
advertiser supported programming is free, we are not just helping to cover
up the hidden social and cultural costs of advertising, we are also getting
the audience to accept a much poorer standard of programming ... (we cannot
be too demanding about what we don’t even pay for, can we? Even if we are,
Delivering his acceptance speech at the International Press Institute Award
2007, the eminent editor-in-chief of Outlook group of publications, Mr Vinod
Mehta* said, “…. content is a mix of what the reader wants and what he does
not want. The trick is to marry the two and make money.” More importantly,
he concluded, “Really great journalism must do more than merely give people
what they want. There has to be room for the unexpected, for stories the
public has no idea it wants until it sees them….. “ Ideally, this would be a
fitting motto for good public broadcasting too. A good broadcaster also
leads audience tastes, doesn’t always follow them.
Common belief about public broadcasting is that it guzzles public money.
When public money is invested, it also carries the onus of providing
programming that is of use. But in the case of AIR and Doordarshan, the
licensing revenues and advertising revenues that they earn are not always
available for improving programming. Historically, there has been an
obsession with technological expansion at the cost of programming. Added to
this, the new mantra of all public enterprises, self-sufficiency.
No public broadcasting enterprise can be expected to survive merely as a
profit centre. Expenditure on public broadcasting is an investment in the
future of a community. Leaving the cultural landscape entirely to the
private enterprise is to abdicate the responsibility of the state in
protecting the cultural diversity and integrity of the nation (just as the
state is also responsible for the unity and integrity of the country).
Looking to the future….
There is a world-wide debate today to reclaim the cultural space usurped by
commercial interests much to the degradation of social life. While there are
some reservations on how effective state-run broadcasting can be in doing
this, it is an opportune time to ride the public sentiment and regain the
lost ground. A public broadcaster’s identity is closely tied to the kind of
programmes it can deliver and the value-for money it can create in public
perception. For this, the public broadcaster needs firstly to be proud of
its achievements; while boasting of a proud legacy, it also needs to get
young and speak to a 21st century nation of young people. Be present on the
net - on Facebook, Twitter and other sites to create a buzz on important
issues that the broadcasters are focusing on. Interestingly, All India Radio
is already on Facebook … but wait a minute... it’s not our Aakashvani… it is
an Australian music band!
Thank you for your